Georgia is located in the Caucasus region at the crossroads of Europe and Asia. Georgia shares borders with Russia, Azerbaijan, Armenia and Turkey. The capital city is Tbilisi.
- Municipal waste is disposed in poorly managed landfills. Due to low production and low economic development, the industrial waste has significantly decreased during late 1990s and early 2000s, however at the moment there are no industrial waste treatment facilities, therefore all the waste produced is being disposed into the environment without a treatment. The biggest threat are over 2,5 tons of hazardous chemicals that have been buried at the Mt. Iagluji, at the depth of 20 meters, over 10 years, since mid 1970s.
- Hardship and low life quality forced people to overuse natural resources, particularly firewood. The protection of upland pastures and hill farms from soil erosion is another pressing issue that the government has not addressed owing to lack of economic resources. Unsustainable use of forest and other natural resources has lead to land degradation and desertification.
- The war in Abkhazia did substantial damage to the ecological habitats unique to that region. In 2001, 2.8% of Georgia's total land area was protected. As of 2001, 10 mammal species, 5 bird species, and 7 reptile species were threatened. Species on the endangered list include Atlantic sturgeon, slender-billed curlew, Mediterranean monk seals, Darevsky's viper, and the Armenian birch mouse.
- Climate change has already shown its effects in Georgia in certain regions. Landslides and floods have contributed to significant amounts of population migration. Air temperature and rainfall have both increased in the past 50 years. Climate change has also contributed to an increase in vector borne diseases.
- Taxes on environmental pollution, i.e. on air emissions and waste-water discharges;
- Taxes on the extraction and use of natural resources;
- User charges for municipal services;
- Product charges on certain environmentally harmful products, e.g. on petrol;
- Penalties and fines for non-compliance;
- Financial incentives such as grants and soft loans.
- The National Environmental Action Plan (NEAP), adopted in 2000, sets out priorities among the actions aimed to address environmental problems.
- The national programme and action plan on climate change;
- The national programme and action plan for phasing out ozone-depleting substances;
- The forestry development strategy;
- The integrated coastal zone management programme;
- The national Black Sea strategic action plan;
- The biodiversity strategy and action plan;
- The State programme and action plan on environmental education;
- The strategy (concept) of the State programme for improving fuel quality;
- The national action programme to combat desertification.
The legal framework for environmental protection:
- Law on Environmental Protection, Law on Ambient Air Protection, Law on the Transit and Import of Wastes Into and Out of the Territory of Georgia, Law on Pesticides and Agrochemicals, Law on Hazardous Chemical Substances, Forest Code, Law on Specially Protected Areas
- Law on Environmental Permits